· Forest degradation
· Road construction
· River and stream erosion
The Himalayas, as we know, were formed by the head-on collision of Indian and Eurasian plates. The mountain building process is still going on because the Indian plate is still moving towards the Eurasian plate. The Indian plate is pushing the Asian plate northward at the rate of about 2 cm per year. This means that in every 100 years India moves 200 cm north against the Asian plate. This colliding force builds up pressure continually for several years and this pressure is released in the form of earthquakes from time to time.
Usually the barren cold desert regions have experienced less devastation from earthquakes than other parts of the Himalayan mountain chain, probably due to the low population.
Four major earthquakes have occurred in the Himalayan region in the past 100 years. The famous earthquake that hit Nepal in 1933 A.D. killed thousands of people in Nepal and northern India. Several earthquakes have occurred since that time.
The Indian Himalayas have experienced some significantly strong earthquakes in the last few decades.
Kinnaur Earthquake (1975)
A massive landslide was triggered off by this earthquake near Maling in the Spiti Valley. Another giant landslide blocked the Paro chu River near Sumdo. Many smaller occurrences of slope failure were caused by this earthquake. As a result, communications remained disrupted for several days and helicopter services had to be pressed into operation to bring relief to the worst-affected areas.
Dharchula Earthquake (1980)
Uttarkashi Earthquake (1991)
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