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in this section
Geology and physiography
Plant and Animal Life

There are two strong air masses which greatly influence the climate of the Lake Chad region. There is a dry continental air mass and a humid, maritime air mass which oftentimes collide creating unexpected weather patterns. Precipitation usually occurs when a great depth of humid air mass gathers in the Chad basin. In general, the depth of the air mass varies greatly from day to day and year to year causing fairly unpredictable weather conditions altogether. However, by the end of the dry season, the dry air mass becomes dominant and evaporation occurs. The dry season is a period of time when there is hardly any rain for days on end and large amounts of dust and sand in the air cause great dust storms that are often the cause of extremely poor visibility. The low humidity and the winds result in a great loss of water in the lake.

The highest amounts of rainfall occur from July to September. The annual rainfall is roughly 22 inches (560 mm) in the southern part of the lake and 10 inches (255 mm) in the northern portion. Droughts are quite common within the Chad basin and often occur several times each year.

The average temperature during the rainy season is approximately 90F (32C), however during October and November, the temperature often rise high above the 90F mark. Throughout December and January, average temperatures can be around 47F (8C) during the evening which is considered quire low for most African climates. The hottest month of the year is April when temperatures can reach well over 110F (43C).

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