N'Djamena is the capital city of Chad. Lying in southwestern Chad at the confluence of the Chari and Logone rivers, the city was formerly known as Fort-Lamy.
The city traces its origin back to 1900. At Fort Fureau (Kouseri), French troops defeated the Sudanese adventurer Rabij az_Zubayr, who controlled areas east of Lake Chad. The city got its name - Fort Lamy - from a French major who died in the battle. From then on, Fort Lamy and Chad remained under French control. The Parti Profressiste Tchadien (PPT) was the first nationalist movement. In 1956, Chad gained internal autonomy for the country from the French. Ultimately, Chad gained independence in 1960. Chad then went through about 3 decades of violent conflicts. N'Djamena received its current name in 1973, and was under Libyan control in 1980-81.
N'Djamena suffered badly during the civil war and today, in spite of reconstruction efforts, there are still bomb-sites. However, it is an important market and commercial site as it lies in the cotton-growing, cattle-raising and fishing area. There are also various financial and light-industrial firms. The commercial and Muslim districts are bustling as is the market. The city has a population of well over half a million with the main languages being French and Arabic. Important buildings and institutions in the city include the University of Chad, National School of Administration, National Museum.
The capital is connected by road to other parts of the country as well as Nigeria, Sudan and Central African Republic.
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