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Warthog
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Black Rhinoceros
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Elephant
Black Rhinoceros: Diceros bicornis (Endangered)

Characteristics

Weight and Height
males: wt 2191-3000 lb (996-1364 kg), ht 56-64 in (140-160 cm)
females: wt 1991-2800 lb (896-1260 kg). ht 54-62 in (135-155 cm)

Horns
Two horns which vary in size and shape based on many factors such as: sex, age, and location; front horn typically thinner than rear and usually longer; front horn: 20 to 32 in (50-80 cm); rear horn: 14 to 16 in (35-40 cm).

Color
Dark gray


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General Locations
Originally spread throughout the Northern and Southern Savanna, Sahel, Somali-Masai, and South West Arid Zones. A steady decline in population has occurred due to the sudden demand for rhino horn. The black rhino is endangered in almost all areas of Africa, including South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Namibia; where they were once very abundant. Black rhinos can be found in the following National Parks and Reserves: Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania; Nairobi NP, Solio Ranch GR, Kenya; Gonarazhou and Mana Pools NP, Zimbabwe; Kruger NP, Hluhluwe GR, South Africa.

Habitat
The black rhino can be found in a wide range of habitats, such as, semidesert thornbush, montane forest, and wetlands. When picking a home range, rhinos will look for water, wallows and mineral licks. Rhinos have been known to eat over 200 types of plants, herbs and shrubs.

The rhino can go up to 4 or 5 days without water. Rhinos have been known to travel 5 to 15 mi (8-25 km) daily to find water for drinking and wallowing in during the dry season.


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Activity
The rhino is considered both nocturnal and diurnal. Rhinos can be found eating or sleeping most of the time and as a result are known for being quite lazy. On average, rhinos will move and feed at night, but are most active early and late in the day.

Social Systems
Black rhinos are either solitary and territorial or semisocial and nonterritorial depending on the area in which they live. Researchers have concluded that rhinos are becoming more sociable due to more crowded habitats.

In wooded habitats, there are an average of 2.5 rhinos per sq. mi (1/sq. km). Male territories are generally 963 to 1160 acres (390-470 ha) and will generally overlap other territories while female territories are 1433 to 1900 acres (580-770 ha).

In the Ngorongoro Crater, for example, 100 different rhinos were seen within a 100 sq. mi (260 sq. km) area. In this region, males and females did not have specific territories, but instead shared a home range of 640 to 10.880 acres (259-4400 ha).


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Reproduction
Females calve at 2.25 to 4 year intervals which depend on the season and several other factors. Females are capable of conceiving by the age of 4 or 5, which is before maturity of 7 years.

Predators
Hyenas and lions



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