Arab Republic of Egypt
led a constant war against Israel, helped by the Soviet Union
which supplied Egypt with large quantities of weapons, materials
and technicians. In spite of this, Egypt was defeated in 1956
and in the “Six Day War” of 1967.
the war in 1967 and Nasser’s death in 1970, there was an arms
race in the Middle East which culminated in the war of 1973,
which saw a partial Arab victory. However Egypt had achieved
its aim and Israel was now being forced to talk. In 1975 Israel
returned part of occupied Sinai (including the pertol fields
of Abu Rodeiss and the strategic Miltla Pass) to Egypt.
death of Nasser opened the way for the new Rais, Anwar Al
Sadat, to put in place his policy of “infitale” (opening),
which was a return to a form of liberalism. The declaired
aim was to favour private initiative, both local and foreign.
For the peasants or fellaheen, “infitale” was an agrarian
reform in favour of the landowners. For the workers in towns,
“infitale” brought in a form of rationing, and there were
incidents of civil unrest.
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